A Linux User Reference

Search tips
  • search ignores words that are less than 4 characters in length
  • searches are case insensitve
  • if a search does not return anything try it in Boolean mode then Query expansion mode by checking the appropriate radio button e.g. searching for 'cron' in just the Administration category returns nothing - presumably because the 50% threshold is reached. Boolean mode ignores this threshold so a search for 'cron' returns several hits
  • in Boolean mode preceding a word with a '+' means the result must include that word, a '-' means it must not
  • in Boolean mode '+crontab -anacron' means match articles about crontab that DO NOT mention anacron
  • to match a phrase e.g. 'manage system' check the Boolean mode radio button and enclose the phrase in quotes "some phrase ..."
  • in Query expansion mode the search context is expanded beyond the keywords you entered - relevancy of hits may well be degraded



  • Leafnode

    NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) server for small sites e.g. dialup. Some commands follow:

    Fetch news from another source - fetchnews

    fetchnews [-q] [-v] [-x #] [-l]
              [-n] [-f] [-P] [-w]
     -q                 Quiet, suppress some warnings, cancels -v
     -v                 More verbose (may be repeated), cancels -q
     -x                 Check for # extra articles in each group
     -l                 Do not use supplementary servers
     -n                 Do not automatically expire unread groups
     -f                 Force reload of groupinfo file
     -P                 Only post outgoing articles, don't fetch any
     -w                 Wait, run XOVER updater in foreground

    Delete old news - texpire

    texpire {[-v[v[v[v]]]]|-q} [-f] 
     -q                 Be quiet (cancels -v)
     -v                 More verbose (cancels -q, may be repeated)
     -f                 Force expire irrespective of access time

    Update group descriptions - checkgroups

    checkgroups <checkgroupsfile>

    Apply filter(s) to news spool - applyfilter

    applyfilter [-v] ... newsgroup

    Display contents of news queue - newsq

    newsq [-f]
     -f                 Display contents of failed postings queue

    Display news queue contents

    # newsq
    Contents of queue in directory /var/spool/news/out.going
    The queue is empty.

    Display contents of failed news queue

    # newsq -f
    Contents of queue in directory /var/spool/news/failed.postings
    The queue is empty.
  • Leafnode files and directories
    • All files and directories must be readable by the user "news".
    • Recommend user "news" be the only user in the group "news" and these files belong to "root:news".

    /etc/news/ directory tree

    `-- /etc/news/leafnode/
        |-- /etc/news/leafnode/config
        |-- /etc/news/leafnode/debian-config
        |-- /etc/news/leafnode/do-fetch-news*
        `-- /etc/news/leafnode/filters
    File name Description
    /etc/news/leafnode/config Config file, set owner root:news and mode 640
    /var/spool/news Requires +rw permissions for user "news". It contains the news articles
    /var/spool/news/leaf.node Contains the files that leafnode creates during operation
    /var/spool/news/out.going Contains local postings that fetchnews is to pass to the upstream NNTP server
    /var/spool/news/failed.postings Contains local postings that the upstream server rejected
    /var/spool/news/ Contains hard links to each message
    /var/spool/news/interesting.groups Contains one file for each group an NNTP client has asked to read
    /etc/inetd.conf or /etc/xinetd.conf Contains the configuration which starts leafnode
  • Leafnode configuration

    Default configuration

    # specified for leafnode to work.
    server =             # NNTP server to retrieve news from and post
                                            # articles to. Can specify more than one 
                                            # news server ( top -> down)
    expire = 5                              # Number of days an article should be kept
    hostname =
    timeout_short =                         # Accidentally opened, default = 2 days
    timeout_long =                          # Unopened - default = 7 days
  • Internet News Service (INN)
    • 'innd' - The INN daemon, TCP port 143 (default), NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
    • 'inndstart' - Front-end to innd. Takes same flags as innd - see innd man page.
    • 'expire' - Usenet article and history expiration program. Many options - see man page.
    • 'ctlinnd' - InterNet News Daemon control program.

    Controls the InterNetNews daemon. Add/delete groups, allow/prohibit NTTP clients, enable/reject remote news feeds, server status, cancel postings to a list, stop/start INN.

    ctlinnd [options] command [ argument ...  ]
    -h                                  Command summary
    -s                                  If cmd is successful do not print any message
    -t <int>                            How long to wait for a reply from server. 
                                        Default is set as 'CTLINND_TIMEOUT' 
                                        in (typically 0). A negative value
                                        means no reply is needed

    Some commands:

    allow reason ...                    Allow remote connections, 'reason' = same txt  
                                       as given in an earlier 'reject' cmd or is blank
    checkfile                           Check syntax of newsfeeds file
    drop site                           Stop feeding site
    flush site                          Flush feed for site*
    flushlogs                           Flush log files
    go reason...                        Restart after pause or throttle
    hangup channel                      Hangup specified incoming channel
    logmode                             Send server mode to syslog
    newgroup group rest creator         Create new group
    pause reason...                     Short-term pause in accepting articles
    readers flag text...                Enable or disable news reading
    reject reason...                    Reject remote connections
    reload what reason...               Re-read config files*
    rmgroup group                       Remove named group
    shutdown reason...                  Shut down server
    kill signal site                    Send signal to site's process
    throttle reason...                  Stop accepting articles
    trace innd|#|nnrpd flag             Turn tracing on or off
    xabort text...                      Abort the server

    An empty string means all sites/groups/etc ...

  • INN main configuration file

    Example entries

    # Primary INN conf file
    # <parameter>:<whitespace><value>
    domain   my.domain               # Local domain, without leading period.
    fromhost my.domain               # What to put in the From line.
                                     # Default is FQDN of the local host.
    pathhost            # What to put in the Path and Xref headers.
                                     # Default is FQDN of the local host.
    organization  my-org
    server        localhost          # Local NNTP server host to connect to.
    inewsport 12324                  # Default port for inews.
    port  143                        # Default port for listening.
    bindaddress              # Default address for listening
  • INN access file

    Example entries

    # Access file for on-campus NNTP sites
    # Connecting host must be found in this file; the last match found is used
    # <host>     Wildcard name or IP address
    # <perm>     R to read; P to post
    # <user>     Username for authentication before posting
    # <pass>     Password, for same reason
    # <groups>   Newsgroup patterns that can be read or not read
    # <host>:<perm>:<user>:<pass>:<groups>
    *:  -no-   -no- :!*            # Default is no access, no way to authenticate
                                   # and no groups.
    stdin:Read Post:::*
    localhost:Read Post:::* Post:::*
  • INN News feeds configuration

    Example entries

    # Names and addresses that feed us news
    # <host>/<param>   Name/IP address; no wildcards.  If not listed handed off to nnrpd
    # /a               IP address of the feeder should always be included in the Path line
    # /t               IP address of the feeder should never be included in the Path line
    # /s               The feeder is allowed to do streaming (please read hosts.nntp(5)!)
    # <host>/<param>:<password>
    # <host>/<param>:<password>:<permitted groups>
    localhost/t        # IP addr of host to feed you news in case DNS fails    # The hostname of the above ip address        # Here is FQ name of news server
  • INN password file

    Example entries

    # Passwords for connecting to remote NNTP servers
    # Clients need only one entry, for where innd is running
    # Server will have more entries for connecting to peers to feed them articles
    # <host>         Host this line is for.
    # <name>         Name to use to authenticate with
    # <pass>         Password to send, after sending name
    # <style>        Optional authentication style, defaults to "authinfo"
    # <host>:<name>:<pass>[:<style>]
  • INN news expiration control file

    Example entries

    # expire control file
    # <patterns>     Wildcard style patterns for the newsgroups
    # <modflag>      M,U,A - modifies pattern - Moderated, Unmoderated, or All groups
    # <keep>         Days to keep article, can be floating-point numbers or "never"
    # <default>      Days to keep the article, can be floating-point numbers or "never"
    # <purge>        Flush article after days, can be floating-point numbers or "never"
    # /remember/:<keep>                               1st. Line states history retention
    # <patterns>:<modflag>:<keep>:<default>:<purge>   2nd. Line specifies expiration
    /remember/:14          # If article expires <14 days still remember it in case it 
                           # is offered again
    *:A:1:10:60            # Keep 1-10 days, allow Expires headers to work up to 60
                           # days. Default.
  • Additional INN files
    File name Description
    /etc/news/control.ctl Access control for control messages
    /etc/news/newsfeeds Determine where Usenet articles get sent
    /etc/news/innwatch.ctl Control file for innwatch. Indicates what to run to test the state of the news system and what to do about it
    /etc/news/hosts.nntp.nolimit Hosts permitted to connect, limits set by innd -i and -X. Localhost must be present in hosts.nntp too
    /etc/news/innreport.conf Logfile settings, location, number etc..
    /etc/news/whoami Host's FQDN
    /etc/news/server Server name
    /var/log/news/ Log directory -errlog, log, news.crit, news.err, news.notice, OLD/